Volume 1 ; Issue 2 ; in Month : Apr-Jun (2018) Article No : 111
Oates JT, Lopez D

Abstract
Since the human genome project in 2003, the view of personalized medicine to improve diagnosis and cure diseases at the molecular level became more real. Sequencing the human genome brought some benefits in medicine such as early detection of diseases with a genetic predisposition, treating patients with rare diseases, the design of gene therapy and the understanding of pharmacogenetics in the metabolism of drugs. This review explains the concepts of pharmacogenetics, polymorphisms, mutations, variations, and alleles, and how this information has helped us better understand the metabolism of drugs. Multiple resources are presented to promote reducing the gap between scientists, physicians, and patients in understanding the use and benefits of pharmacogenetics. Some of the most common clinical examples of genetic variants and how pharmacogenetics was used to determine treatment options for patients having these variants were discussed. Finally, we evaluated some of the challenges of implementing pharmacogenetics in a clinical setting and proposed actions to be taken to make pharmacogenetics a standard diagnostic tool in personalized medicine.

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